.htaccess পাঠ ২ :: htaccess ক্যরেক্টার বিস্তারিত

.htaccess এর বেশ কিছু ক্যরেক্টার রয়েছে যেগুলোর মাধ্যমে কোড গুলো লেখা হয়। এক এক টি ক্যরেক্টারের বিশেষ বিশেষ কাজ রয়েছে। এই ক্যরেক্টার গুলো জানা থাকলে কোন লাইনে কি বলা হয়েছে সেটা আপনি খুব সহজেই বুঝতে পারবেন। যা আপনার কাজের ক্ষেত্রে খুবই সহজ হবে।

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htaccess এর ক্যরেক্টার সমূহ

Character/Flag Definition
#  Instructs the server to ignore the line. Used for including comments
[F] Forbidden: instructs the server to return a 403 Forbidden to the client.
[L] Last rule: instructs the server to stop rewriting after the preceding directive is processed.
[N] Next: instructs Apache to rerun the rewrite rule until all rewriting is complete.
[G] Gone: instructs the server to deliver Gone (no longer exists) status message.
[P] Proxy: instructs server to handle requests by mod_proxy.
[C] Chain: instructs server to chain the current rule with the previous rule.
[R] Redirect: instructs Apache to redirect to the specified URL. Note that the default status-code for the [R] flag is 302 (permanent redirect); for temporary redirects use [R=301].
 [NC] No Case: defines any associated argument as case-insensitive.
 [PT] Pass Through: instructs mod_rewrite to pass the rewritten URL for further processing.
 [OR] Or: specifies a logical “or” that ties two expressions together such that either one proving true will cause the associated rule to be applied.
 [NE] No Escape: instructs the server to parse output without escaping characters.
 [NS] No Subrequest: instructs the server to skip the directive if internal sub-request.
 [QSA] Append Query String: directs server to add the query string to the end of the expression.
 [S=x] Skip: instructs the server to skip the next “x” number of rules if a match is detected.
 [E=var:value] Environmental Variable: instructs the server to set the variable “var” to “value”.
 [T=MIME-type] Mime Type: declares the mime type of the target resource.
 [xyz] Character class: any character within square brackets will be a match. For example, “[xyz]” will match any of the characters x, y, or z.
 [xyz]+ Character class in which any combination of items within the brackets will be a match. For example, “[xyz]+” will match any number of x’s, y’s, z’s, or any combination thereof.
[^xyz] Not within a character class. For example, [^xyz] will match any character that isn’t x, y, or z.
 [a-z] A dash “-” between two characters within a character class denotes the range of characters between them. For example, [a-zA-Z] matches all lowercase and uppercase letters.
 a{n} Exact number, n, of the preceding character, a. For example, x{3} matches exactly three x’s.
 a{n,} Specifies n or more of the preceding character. For example, x{3,} matches three or more x’s.
 a{n,m} Specifies a range of numbers, between n and m, of the preceding character, a. For example, x{3,7} matches three, four, five, six, or seven x’s.
 () Used to group characters together, thereby considering them as a single unit. For example, (htaccess)?book will match “book”, with or without the “htaccess” prefix.
 ^ Denotes the beginning of a regular expression. For example, “^Hello” will match any string that begins with “Hello”. Without the caret “^”, “Hello” would match anywhere in the string.
 $ Denotes the end of a regular expression. For example, “world$” will match any string that ends with “world”. Without the dollar sign “$”, “world” would match anywhere in the string.
 ? Declares as optional the preceding character. For example, “monzas?” will match “monza” or “monzas”. In other words, “x?” matches zero or one of “x”.
 ! Declares negation. For example, “!string” matches everything except “string”.
 . A literal dot (or period) indicates any single arbitrary character.
 –  Instructs Apache to NOT rewrite the URL. Example syntax: “example.com – [F]”
 + Matches one or more of the preceding character. For example, “G+” matches one or more G’s, while “+” will match one or more characters of any kind.
 * Matches zero or more of the preceding character. For example, use “.*” as a wildcard.
 | Declares a logical “or” operator. For example, “(x|y)” matches “x” or “y”.
 \ Escape special characters such as: ^ $ ! . * | ( ) [ ] { }
 \. Indicates a literal dot (escaped).
 /* Zero or more slashes.
 .* Zero or more arbitrary characters.
 ^$ Defines an empty string.
 ^.*$ The standard pattern for matching everything.
 [^/.] Defines one character that is neither a slash nor a dot.
 [^/.]+ Defines any number of characters that contains neither slash nor dot.
 http:// This is a literal statement — in this case, the literal character string, “http://”.
 ^example.* Matches a string that begins with the term “example”, followed by any character(s).
 ^example\.com$ Defines the exact string, “example.com”.
 -d Tests if string is an existing directory.
 -f Tests if string is an existing file.
 -s Tests if file in test string has a non-zero value.

 

.htaccess এর চেইন পোস্ট সমূহঃ

.htaccess পাঠ ১ :: বেসিক

.htaccess পাঠ ২ :: htaccess ক্যরেক্টার বিস্তারিত

.htaccess পাঠ ৩ :: htaccess এর প্রয়োজনীয় টেকনিক/কোড (Coming Soon)

 

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